UnCategorized Ancient sportsmen signed their contracts in the form of oaths; popular among these was sacramentum gladiatorum oath sworn by gladiators in ancient Rome, which was similar to one taken by the legionary only much dire. The oath gave a measure of volition and even honor to the gladiator because gladiatorial combats often resulted to injuries and death. Gladiators often fought as individuals rather than teams, but just like teams can be given names for violating rules, gladiators were often named based on Roman enemies. Gladiators split into several categories, namely: Velites These were named after the early form of Republican army unit. They often fought on foot with each one holding a spear designed with a thong in strap for throwing. Thraces Thracian gladiators were equipped with broad rimmed metal helmet that enclosed the entire head, a pair of thigh length greaves and a small oval shaped or square shield. They fought hoplomachi – heavily armed gladiators. Secutores They fought the retiarii and were armed with a gladius and a shield. Provocatores Also called challengers, they paired against the Samnites but their armament is unknown and may have been variable depending on the games. Retiarii These carried a trident, a dagger, and a net, a larger manica extending to the shoulder and left side of the chest. They commonly fought secutores or mirmillones. Occasionally a metal shoulder shield, or galerus, was added to protect the neck and lower face. Hoplomachi Also called Samnite, they were fully armored, and based on Greek hoplites and wore a helmet with a stylized griffin on the crest, woollen quilted leg wrappings, and shin-guards. They carried a spear in the Hoplite style with a small round shield. They were paired against Mirmillones or Thraces. Weapons of the Gladiator Galea Galea is the Latin word for helmet. The helmet was originally leather and could be strengthened or decorated with gold or bronze pieces. Metal helmets were properly called cassides (cassis in the singular). Cheek pieces were sometimes attached to the galea with hinges. The cheek pieces were known as bucculae. Gladius The Roman gladius was generally double-edged. Along most of its length, the width of the gladius remained constant. Soldiers used the gladius for thrusting. Ocrea Ocrea is a metal legging with a cloth or leather lining. A Greek, Etruscan, and Roman soldier had an ocrea as part of his equipment, along with a helmet, belt, cuirass, and shield. In time, the Roman infantry came to wear the ocrea on the right, which was unprotected by the shield. The ocrea might be fastened with straps or it might stay in place on its own. There were ankle rings to fasten the bottom of the ocrea to the foot. Parma Parma was a round shield a yard across carried by Roman skirmishers or velites. Iron in its frame made it an effective piece of armor. Scutum Scutum was a large oblong shield held on the left arm with a handle. It was used by the Roman infantry. The scutum was either wooden or made of wicker. The scutum might be curved to fit around the body. It was about 4 feet long by two and a half feet wide. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: